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2019-08-23

VS Code : 讓pylint 除了錯誤(error)以外,排除顯示(disabled)不影響程式執行的警告(warning)、提示訊息(infomation)的訊息

Pylint的警告(warning)、提示訊息(infomation)等訊息,通常不會影響程式的正常執行,但通常會讓程式碼看起來很不舒服,這些訊息可能包含:

  1. Missing class docstring pylint(missing-docstring)
  2. Found indentation with tabs instead of spaces pylint(mixed-indentation)
  3. Variable name "e1" doesn't conform to snake_case naming style pylint(invalid-name)
  4. No space allowed after bracket pylint(bad-whitespace)
  5. Method could be a function pylint(no-self-use)
  6. Trailing whitespace pylint(trailing-whitespace)
  7. Constant name "win" doesn't conform to UPPER_CASE naming style pylint(invalid-name)
  8.  ...
在VS Code的setting.json加入"python.linting.pylintArgs": ["--errors-only"]

VS Code : pylint 出現錯誤訊息:No name 'QApplication' in module 'PyQt5.QtWidgets',解決方法


  1. 錯誤訊息:No name 'QApplication' in module 'PyQt5.QtWidgets'
  2. 訊息內容:
    {
    "resource": "/d:/MyWorkSpaces/VSWorks/ch04/qt04_lineEdit04.py",
    "owner": "python",
    "code": "no-name-in-module",
    "severity": 8,
    "message": "No name 'QApplication' in module 'PyQt5.QtWidgets'",
    "source": "pylint",
    "startLineNumber": 5,
    "startColumn": 1,
    "endLineNumber": 5,
    "endColumn": 1
    }

  3. 錯誤原因:
    跟所使用的Pylint有關,所採用的版本預設不支援外部擴充模組(Extenions),PyQt5是C++所寫的外部擴充(Extension)。
  4. 解決方法:
    • VS Code : 檔案→喜好設定→設定
    • 在設定的搜尋方塊中輸入:python.linting.pylintArgs
      新增項目,輸入:--extension-pkg-whitelist=PyQt5
    • 設定資料會被寫入:setting.json
    • No name 'QApplication' in module 'PyQt5.QtWidgets' 等模組錯誤的訊息消失了
      from的下曲紅底線,不見了 ...

2019-08-21

Python : 使用PyInstaller把專案程式打包封裝成EXE執行檔

  1. 安裝PyInstaller:
    (base) C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3>pip install PyInstaller
    Collecting PyInstaller
      Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/e2/c9/0b44b2ea87ba36395483a672fddd07e6a9cb2b8d3c4a28d7ae76c7e7e1e5/PyInstaller-3.5.tar.gz (3.5MB)
         |████████████████████████████████| 3.5MB 3.3MB/s
      Installing build dependencies ... done
      Getting requirements to build wheel ... done
        Preparing wheel metadata ... done
    Collecting pywin32-ctypes>=0.2.0 (from PyInstaller)
      Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/9e/4b/3ab2720f1fa4b4bc924ef1932b842edf10007e4547ea8157b0b9fc78599a/pywin32_ctypes-0.2.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl
    Collecting pefile>=2017.8.1 (from PyInstaller)
      Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/36/58/acf7f35859d541985f0a6ea3c34baaefbfaee23642cf11e85fe36453ae77/pefile-2019.4.18.tar.gz (62kB)
         |████████████████████████████████| 71kB 2.3MB/s
    Requirement already satisfied: setuptools in c:\programdata\anaconda3\lib\site-packages (from PyInstaller) (41.0.1)
    Collecting altgraph (from PyInstaller)
      Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/0a/cc/646187eac4b797069e2e6b736f14cdef85dbe405c9bfc7803ef36e4f62ef/altgraph-0.16.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl
    Requirement already satisfied: future in c:\programdata\anaconda3\lib\site-packages (from pefile>=2017.8.1->PyInstaller) (0.17.1)
    Building wheels for collected packages: PyInstaller
      Building wheel for PyInstaller (PEP 517) ... done
      Stored in directory: C:\Users\Hannibal\AppData\Local\pip\Cache\wheels\c6\a4\e0\d9a1c5d3d876eb0675171281c293aed80839115e2eb022e6d2
    Successfully built PyInstaller
    Building wheels for collected packages: pefile
      Building wheel for pefile (setup.py) ... done
      Stored in directory: C:\Users\Hannibal\AppData\Local\pip\Cache\wheels\1c\a1\95\4f33011a0c013c872fe6f0f364dc463a2588120820e40a30d8
    Successfully built pefile
    Installing collected packages: pywin32-ctypes, pefile, altgraph, PyInstaller
    Successfully installed PyInstaller-3.5 altgraph-0.16.1 pefile-2019.4.18 pywin32-ctypes-0.2.0
  2. PyInstaller的參數:
    (base) C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3\Scripts>PyInstaller --help
    usage: pyinstaller [-h] [-v] [-D] [-F] [--specpath DIR] [-n NAME]
                       [--add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>]
                       [--add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>] [-p DIR]
                       [--hidden-import MODULENAME]
                       [--additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH]
                       [--runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS] [--exclude-module EXCLUDES]
                       [--key KEY] [-d {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}] [-s]
                       [--noupx] [--upx-exclude FILE] [-c] [-w]
                       [-i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>]
                       [--version-file FILE] [-m <FILE or XML>] [-r RESOURCE]
                       [--uac-admin] [--uac-uiaccess] [--win-private-assemblies]
                       [--win-no-prefer-redirects]
                       [--osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER]
                       [--runtime-tmpdir PATH] [--bootloader-ignore-signals]
                       [--distpath DIR] [--workpath WORKPATH] [-y]
                       [--upx-dir UPX_DIR] [-a] [--clean] [--log-level LEVEL]
                       scriptname [scriptname ...]

    positional arguments:
      scriptname            name of scriptfiles to be processed or exactly one
                            .spec-file. If a .spec-file is specified, most options
                            are unnecessary and are ignored.

    optional arguments:
      -h, --help            show this help message and exit
      -v, --version         Show program version info and exit.
      --distpath DIR        Where to put the bundled app (default: .\dist)
      --workpath WORKPATH   Where to put all the temporary work files, .log, .pyz
                            and etc. (default: .\build)
      -y, --noconfirm       Replace output directory (default:
                            SPECPATH\dist\SPECNAME) without asking for confirmation
      --upx-dir UPX_DIR     Path to UPX utility (default: search the execution path)
      -a, --ascii           Do not include unicode encoding support (default:included if available)
      --clean               Clean PyInstaller cache and remove temporary files before building.
      --log-level LEVEL     Amount of detail in build-time console messages. LEVEL
                            may be one of TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR,
                            CRITICAL (default: INFO).

    What to generate:
      -D, --onedir          Create a one-folder bundle containing an executable (default)
      -F, --onefile         Create a one-file bundled executable.
      --specpath DIR        Folder to store the generated spec file (default: current directory)
      -n NAME, --name NAME  Name to assign to the bundled app and spec file
                            (default: first script's basename)

    What to bundle, where to search:
      --add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                            Additional non-binary files or folders to be added to
                            the executable. The path separator is platform
                            specific, ``os.pathsep`` (which is ``;`` on Windows
                            and ``:`` on most unix systems) is used. This option
                            can be used multiple times.
      --add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                            Additional binary files to be added to the executable.
                            See the ``--add-data`` option for more details. This
                            option can be used multiple times.
      -p DIR, --paths DIR   A path to search for imports (like using PYTHONPATH).
                            Multiple paths are allowed, separated by ';', or use
                            this option multiple times
      --hidden-import MODULENAME, --hiddenimport MODULENAME
                            Name an import not visible in the code of the
                            script(s). This option can be used multiple times.
      --additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH
                            An additional path to search for hooks. This option
                            can be used multiple times.
      --runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS
                            Path to a custom runtime hook file. A runtime hook is
                            code that is bundled with the executable and is
                            executed before any other code or module to set up
                            special features of the runtime environment. This
                            option can be used multiple times.
      --exclude-module EXCLUDES
                            Optional module or package (the Python name, not the
                            path name) that will be ignored (as though it was not
                            found). This option can be used multiple times.
      --key KEY             The key used to encrypt Python bytecode.

    How to generate:
      -d {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}, --debug {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}
                            Provide assistance with debugging a frozen
                            application. This argument may be provided multiple
                            times to select several of the following options.
                            - all: All three of the following options.
                            - imports: specify the -v option to the underlying
                              Python interpreter, causing it to print a message
                              each time a module is initialized, showing the
                              place (filename or built-in module) from which it
                              is loaded. See
                              https://docs.python.org/3/using/cmdline.html#id4.
                            - bootloader: tell the bootloader to issue progress
                              messages while initializing and starting the
                              bundled app. Used to diagnose problems with
                              missing imports.
                            - noarchive: instead of storing all frozen Python
                              source files as an archive inside the resulting
                              executable, store them as files in the resulting
                              output directory.
      -s, --strip           Apply a symbol-table strip to the executable and
                            shared libs (not recommended for Windows)
      --noupx               Do not use UPX even if it is available (works
                            differently between Windows and *nix)
      --upx-exclude FILE    Prevent a binary from being compressed when using upx.
                            This is typically used if upx corrupts certain
                            binaries during compression. FILE is the filename of
                            the binary without path. This option can be used
                            multiple times.

    Windows and Mac OS X specific options:
      -c, --console, --nowindowed
                            Open a console window for standard i/o (default).
    On
                            Windows this option will have no effect if the first
                            script is a '.pyw' file.
      -w, --windowed, --noconsole
                            Windows and Mac OS X: do not provide a console window
                            for standard i/o. On Mac OS X this also triggers
                            building an OS X .app bundle. On Windows this option
                            will be set if the first script is a '.pyw' file. This
                            option is ignored in *NIX systems.
      -i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>, --icon <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>
                            FILE.ico: apply that icon to a Windows executable.
                            FILE.exe,ID, extract the icon with ID from an exe.
                            FILE.icns: apply the icon to the .app bundle on Mac OS X

    Windows specific options:
      --version-file FILE   add a version resource from FILE to the exe
      -m <FILE or XML>, --manifest <FILE or XML>
                            add manifest FILE or XML to the exe
      -r RESOURCE, --resource RESOURCE
                            Add or update a resource to a Windows executable. The
                            RESOURCE is one to four items,
                            FILE[,TYPE[,NAME[,LANGUAGE]]]. FILE can be a data file
                            or an exe/dll. For data files, at least TYPE and NAME
                            must be specified. LANGUAGE defaults to 0 or may be
                            specified as wildcard * to update all resources of the
                            given TYPE and NAME. For exe/dll files, all resources
                            from FILE will be added/updated to the final
                            executable if TYPE, NAME and LANGUAGE are omitted or
                            specified as wildcard *.This option can be used
                            multiple times.
      --uac-admin           Using this option creates a Manifest which will
                            request elevation upon application restart.
      --uac-uiaccess        Using this option allows an elevated application to
                            work with Remote Desktop.

    Windows Side-by-side Assembly searching options (advanced):
      --win-private-assemblies
                            Any Shared Assemblies bundled into the application
                            will be changed into Private Assemblies. This means
                            the exact versions of these assemblies will always be
                            used, and any newer versions installed on user
                            machines at the system level will be ignored.
      --win-no-prefer-redirects
                            While searching for Shared or Private Assemblies to
                            bundle into the application, PyInstaller will prefer
                            not to follow policies that redirect to newer
                            versions, and will try to bundle the exact versions of
                            the assembly.

    Mac OS X specific options:
      --osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER
                            Mac OS X .app bundle identifier is used as the default
                            unique program name for code signing purposes. The
                            usual form is a hierarchical name in reverse DNS
                            notation. For example:
                            com.mycompany.department.appname (default: first
                            script's basename)

    Rarely used special options:
      --runtime-tmpdir PATH
                            Where to extract libraries and support files in
                            `onefile`-mode. If this option is given, the
                            bootloader will ignore any temp-folder location
                            defined by the run-time OS. The ``_MEIxxxxxx``-folder
                            will be created here. Please use this option only if
                            you know what you are doing.
      --bootloader-ignore-signals
                            Tell the bootloader to ignore signals rather than
                            forwarding them to the child process. Useful in
                            situations where e.g. a supervisor process signals
                            both the bootloader and child (e.g. via a process
                            group) to avoid signalling the child twice.
  3. 打包封裝的範例
    PyInstaller -F -w --key "TheKeyUsedToEncryptPythonBytecode" CallWeatherWin.py
    -F:打包封裝成一個執行檔 (-D:打包封裝成一個目錄)
    -w:這是一個視窗程式(window),不是主控台程式(console)
    --key:程式碼封裝加密的金鑰
    打包封裝的結果放在dist目錄內。打包的執行檔只能在原相同作業系統下執行(64位元/32位元是有區分的)

    D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2>PyInstaller -F -w --key "TheKeyUsedToEncryptPythonBytecode" CallWeatherWin.py
    159 INFO: PyInstaller: 3.5
    164 INFO: Python: 3.7.3
    167 INFO: Platform: Windows-10-10.0.18362-SP0
    179 INFO: wrote D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\CallWeatherWin.spec
    181 INFO: UPX is not available.
    212 INFO: Extending PYTHONPATH with paths
    ['D:\\MyWorkSpaces\\VSWorks\\ch10a\\weather2',
    'D:\\MyWorkSpaces\\VSWorks\\ch10a\\weather2']
    212 INFO: Will encrypt Python bytecode with key: TheKeyUsedToEncr
    221 INFO: Adding dependencies on pyi_crypto.py module
    223 INFO: checking Analysis
    223 INFO: Building Analysis because Analysis-00.toc is non existent
    224 INFO: Initializing module dependency graph...
    236 INFO: Initializing module graph hooks...
    251 INFO: Analyzing base_library.zip ...
    13714 INFO: Analyzing hidden import 'Crypto.Cipher._AES'
    14066 INFO: running Analysis Analysis-00.toc
    14107 INFO: Adding Microsoft.Windows.Common-Controls to dependent assemblies of final executable
    required by c:\programdata\anaconda3\python.exe
    14779 INFO: Caching module hooks...
    14811 INFO: Analyzing D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\CallWeatherWin.py
    16113 INFO: Processing pre-safe import module hook urllib3.packages.six.moves
    20871 INFO: Processing pre-safe import module hook six.moves
    25919 INFO: Loading module hooks...
    25920 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-certifi.py"...
    25927 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-Crypto.py"...
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File "", line 2, in
    ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'Crypto.Math'
    26049 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-cryptography.py"...
    26814 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-encodings.py"...
    26983 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-pydoc.py"...
    26987 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-PyQt5.py"...
    27509 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-PyQt5.QtCore.py"...
    27678 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-PyQt5.QtGui.py"...
    28090 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-PyQt5.QtWidgets.py"...
    28761 INFO: Loading module hook "hook-xml.py"...
    29119 INFO: Looking for ctypes DLLs
    29157 INFO: Analyzing run-time hooks ...
    29165 INFO: Including run-time hook 'pyi_rth_certifi.py'
    29177 INFO: Including run-time hook 'pyi_rth_pyqt5.py'
    29202 INFO: Looking for dynamic libraries
    32584 INFO: Looking for eggs
    32585 INFO: Using Python library c:\programdata\anaconda3\python37.dll
    32586 INFO: Found binding redirects:
    []
    32606 INFO: Warnings written to D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\build\CallWeatherWin\warn-CallWeatherWin.txt
    32762 INFO: Graph cross-reference written to D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\build\CallWeatherWin\xref-CallWeatherWin.html
    32848 INFO: checking PYZ
    32848 INFO: Building PYZ because PYZ-00.toc is non existent
    32850 INFO: Building PYZ (ZlibArchive) D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\build\CallWeatherWin\PYZ-00.pyz
    34987 INFO: Building PYZ (ZlibArchive) D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\build\CallWeatherWin\PYZ-00.pyz completed successfully.
    35048 INFO: checking PKG
    35050 INFO: Building PKG because PKG-00.toc is non existent
    35050 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg
    35731 WARNING: One binary added with two internal names.
    35732 WARNING: ('libGLESv2.dll',
    'C:\\programdata\\anaconda3\\lib\\site-packages\\PyQt5\\Qt\\bin\\libGLESv2.dll',
    'BINARY')
    35733 WARNING: was placed previously at
    35735 WARNING: ('PyQt5\\Qt\\bin\\libGLESv2.dll',
    'C:\\programdata\\anaconda3\\lib\\site-packages\\PyQt5\\Qt\\bin\\libGLESv2.dll',
    'BINARY')
    60664 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg completed successfully.
    60689 INFO: Bootloader c:\programdata\anaconda3\lib\site-packages\PyInstaller\bootloader\Windows-64bit\runw.exe
    60690 INFO: checking EXE
    60691 INFO: Building EXE because EXE-00.toc is non existent
    60693 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc
    60696 INFO: Appending archive to EXE D:\MyWorkSpaces\VSWorks\ch10a\weather2\dist\CallWeatherWin.exe
    61113 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc completed successfully.

2019-08-17

讓在Anaconda Navigator環境下安裝執行的Visual Studio Code增加PYQT Integration的擴充功能

  1. 在Visual Studio Code安裝PYQT Integration的擴充功能
  2. 安裝PYQT Integration擴充功能後,將會增加下列功能,或更多,例如:
    從VS code直接開啟 designer.exe 新增 ui form,在VS Code下預覽 ui form ...

    PYQT: New FormOpen designer
    PYQT: Edit In DesignerOpen designer with current ui form
    PYQT: PreviewPreview current ui form
    PYQT: Compile FormCompile ui form to path defined in "pyqt-integration.pyuic.compile.filepath"
    PYQT: Compile ResourceCompile qrc file to path defined in "pyqt-integration.pyrcc.compile.filepath"
    PYQT: Generate Translation File (.ts)Compile UI file (.py) to translation file with path defined in "pyqt-integration.pylupdate.compile.filepath"
    Compile .pro file
    PYQT: Open With Qt LinguistOpen with Qt Linguist for translation file (.ts)
  3. 如果從 VS Code,無法正常啟動 designer.exe 或 pyuic5 ...,可以透過擴充延伸模組設定,指定正確的路徑、檔名 ...
  4. 以Qtdesigner這個設定項目為例,designer.exe,通常都是放在,Anaconda3安裝目錄的\Lib\site-packages\pyqt5_tools\路徑下。
  5. 設定項目的參考資料:
    pyqt-integration.qtdesigner.pathPath of executable file of qt designer, the extension will ask you to set at the first time it runs, e.g. c:\\Users\\username\\AppData\\Local\\Programs\\Python\\Python35\\Lib\\site-packages\\pyqt5-tools\\designer.exe
    pyqt-integration.pyuic.cmd"pyuic" command, default "pyuic5"
    pyqt-integration.pyuic.compile.filepathCompile file path, relative path as default, switch to absolute path by involving ${workspace}, e.g. ${workspace}\\UI\\Ui_${ui_name}.py
    pyqt-integration.pyuic.compile.addOptionsAdditional options for pyuic compiling, it can be a combination of '-x', '-d', '-i', etc.
    pyqt-integration.pyrcc.cmd"pyrcc" command, default "pyrcc5"
    pyqt-integration.pyrcc.compile.filepathCompile file path, relative path as default, switch to absolute path by involving ${workspace}, e.g. ${workspace}\\QRC\\${qrc_name}_rc.py
    pyqt-integration.pyrcc.compile.addOptionsAdditional options for pyrcc compiling, it can be a combination of '-root', '-threshold', '-compress', '-no-compress', etc.
    pyqt-integration.pylupdate.cmd"pylupdate" command, default "pylupdate5"
    pyqt-integration.pylupdate.compile.filepathOnly works when compiling an UI file (.py), Stores the target '.ts' file's path, relative path as default, switch to absolute path by involving ${workspace}, e.g. ${workspace}\\TS\\${ts_name}.ts
    pyqt-integration.pylupdate.compile.addOptionsAdditional options for pylupdate, it can be a combination of '-verbose', '-noobsolete', '-tr-function', '-translate-function', etc.
    pyqt-integration.linguist.cmd"linguist" command, default "linguist"

讓在Anaconda Navigator環境下安裝的 Visual Studio Code (VS code),以繁體中文的介面顯示

安裝Visual Studio Code (VS Code) 繁體中文語言包(Chinese (Traditional) Language Pack for Visual Studio Code)的步驟:
  1. 點擊「Extensions」→在Extensions marketplace的搜尋方塊內輸入:chinese language pack,選取「Chinese (Traditional) Language Pack for Visual Studio Code」,可以查看VS Code 的中文(繁體)語言套件的說明擊使用方式。
  2. 點擊「Install」,安裝後會提示:重新開啟VS Code
  3. 重新啟動後,就會以繁體中文的語言界面顯示。如果沒有以中文顯示,可以參考以下的使用方式說明:
    安裝了之後,在 locale.json 裡面設定 "locale": "zh-tw" 即可載入中文(繁體)的語言套件。要修改locale.json,可以按下Ctrl+Shift+P來呼叫 命令選擇區,輸入 "config" 以從其他可用命令裡面篩選出 Configure Language 命令。

2019-08-15

Python 3 : SQLite3的存取基本步驟,及異常錯誤處理 (try ... except ... )

  1. 參考資料:
  2. 在Python 3 環境下,使用SQLilte3,對資料庫操作的基本步驟(一般原則):
    1. 用sqlite3.connect("資料庫檔名.副檔名") 建立資料庫連線,並將這個連線物件指定給一個連線物件變數,例如:oConn=sqlite3.connect("資料庫檔名.副檔名")
    2. 建立連線物件的cursor物件,例如:cTest=oConn.cursor()  
    3. 執行SQL命令,將結果以tuple資料組存放在cursor物件內。例如:cTest.execute("SQL命令")  
    4. 取得目標資料集,例如:oTest=cTest.fetchall()  
    5. 處理取得的資料集,例如:for aTest in oTest :
    6. 關閉資料庫連線,例如:oConn.close()  
  3. 對於不需要return回傳執行結果的資料庫操作,可以簡化操作步驟,如下:
    1. 建立資料庫連線,例如:oConn=sqlite3.connect("資料庫檔名.副檔名")
    2. 執行SQL命令,例如:oConn.execute("SQL命令")  
    3. 更新資料庫,例如:oConn.commite()  
  4. cursor物件是一個指標物件,cursor物件執行SQL命令後,會將結果存放在cursor物件內,並可透過fetchone, fetchmany, fetchall ... 等方法或函數來操作cursor物件內的資料。
    一個資料庫連線的使用過程,可以根據目的需求的不同,建立多個cursor物件來使用,不同名稱的cursor物件,如果不再使用可給予關閉close()。同一個cursor物件,可以透過不同的命令執行,賦予不同的資料內容。
    使用VS code 可以快速瀏覽sqlite3 cursor可以使用的方法、屬性...
  5. 可以使用 VS Code,查看Python 有哪些處理 SQLite 錯誤例外異常的類別,例如;Error, DatabaseErrot, DataError, ProgrammingError ...,在不分開測試錯誤類別來源的情況下,可以使用預設的異常錯誤例外處理 Exception ...
    import sqlite3
    oConn=sqlite3.connect("test.db")
    zSQL="UPDATE T SET T2='5',T3='8' WHERE T1='1' "
    try:
        oConn.execute(zSQL)
    except sqlite3.DataError as d:
        print("d=",d)
    except sqlite3.DatabaseError as de:
        print("de=",de)
    except sqlite3.Error as e:
        print("e=",e)
    except Exception as ex:
        print("ex=",ex)
    oConn.commit()

    #de= database is locked

  6. 適度地在SQLite的CRUD操作上使用try ... except ...,可以確保程式持續執行,或在執行過程排除異常、錯誤...。